قال الله تعالى

 {  إِنَّ اللَّــهَ لا يُغَيِّــرُ مَـا بِقَــوْمٍ حَتَّــى يُـغَيِّـــرُوا مَــا بِــأَنْــفُسِــــهِـمْ  }

سورة  الرعد  .  الآيـة   :   11

ahlaa

" ليست المشكلة أن نعلم المسلم عقيدة هو يملكها، و إنما المهم أن نرد إلي هذه العقيدة فاعليتها و قوتها الإيجابية و تأثيرها الإجتماعي و في كلمة واحدة : إن مشكلتنا ليست في أن نبرهن للمسلم علي وجود الله بقدر ما هي في أن نشعره بوجوده و نملأ به نفسه، بإعتباره مصدرا للطاقة. "
-  المفكر الجزائري المسلم الراحل الأستاذ مالك بن نبي رحمه الله  -

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لنكتب أحرفا من النور،quot لنستخرج كنوزا من المعرفة و الإبداع و العلم و الأفكار

الأديبــــة عفــــاف عنيبـــة

السيـــرة الذاتيـــةالسيـــرة الذاتيـــة

أخبـــار ونشـــاطـــاتأخبـــار ونشـــاطـــات 

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Studies

FORESIGHT AFRICA 2022   CHAPTER01 AFRICA’S ECONOMIC RECOVERY: Financing robust post-pandemic growth   Africa’s future never looked brighter than it did during my time serving as the World Bank’s vice president for Africa from 2012 through 2018. The continent was home to the world’s fastest-growing economies—a growth fueled by high commodity prices. Free trade was becoming a reality with the rapid approach and realization of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement. Political instability was largely under control. And, even in the midst of an Ebola outbreak, the continent largely succeeded in containing the worst health and economic impacts of that virus.…
الجمعة, 26 تشرين2/نوفمبر 2021 09:50

Future considerations

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E-books in relation to study and research There is much debate in the literature about which format will prevail – electronic or print. Some authors argue that electronic will replace print, while others do not see electronic as ever being an alternative to print books for all purposes. Most have hedged their bets. Studies on user behaviour indicate that print and e-books are not used in the same way. In the academic environment, e-books are generally used for quick reference, but for more serious study users prefer print books. Obviously, print books and e-books enable different learning styles, and as…
Majorities of Americans say the federal government, businesses and other actors are doing too little to reduce the effects of climate change and express support for a variety of policy approaches aimed at addressing the issue. At the same time, the public has limited appetite for some of the more dramatic proposed changes to energy consumption, such as phasing out the use of fossil fuels entirely or ending the production of gasoline-powered vehicles by 2035, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. The survey, conducted April 20-29 among 13,749 U.S. adults, includes a sample of more than 900 Gen Z…
الخميس, 11 آذار/مارس 2021 12:04

SYRIA: TWO VIEWPOINTS

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ISSUES • After a decade of intense conflict, Syria is now a failed state divided roughly into four competing geographic zones of control: 1. Regime areas in the west, center, and south (~63%) 2. The “Eastern Security Zone” controlled by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), backed by U.S. troops (~28%) 3. Rural northern Aleppo, governed by the Syrian National Army, backed by Turkey (~6%) 4. Territory administered largely by former al-Qaeda affiliate Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) in the northwest (~3%). • While in control of nearly two-thirds of the country, Assad faces a series of security challenges that continue to…
الخميس, 28 كانون2/يناير 2021 12:27

THE STATE OF FRANCIS FUKUYAMA 1

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Professor Francis Fukuyama, currently Bernard L Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy at Johns Hopkins University, was born in Chicago in 1952, and has a BA from Cornell and a doctorate in political science from Harvard. He has worked with the RAND Corporation, the Department of State specialising on the Middle East, and continues to serve on several significant boards such as the President’s Council on Bioethics and the National Endowment for Democracy. Something of the range of his interests can be gauged from the fact that he has written monographs on Russia and the Third World, the consequences of…
الجمعة, 22 كانون2/يناير 2021 10:22

Introduction: Corruption and Democracy in Western Europe 4

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Second, variables such as ‘proximity’, ‘efficacy’, ‘political trust’ and partisanship seem to have a profound effect on cognition and evaluation in matters of corruption. The analyses of de Sousa and Newell suggest that, all other things being equal, the probity of those who are socially distant is likely to be viewed with greater scepticism and judged more harshly when revealed to fall short than is the probity of those whose greater proximity makes them more familiar. The analyses also point to the hypothesis that those confident of the influence they can wield in their interaction with the state are less…
الخميس, 14 كانون2/يناير 2021 11:23

Introduction: Corruption and Democracy in Western Europe 3

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Indeed, we think that not only should the investigation of public attitudes not be abandoned but that efforts in this direction should be increased; for not only are they crucial to an understanding of the substance and significance of political corruption as we have argued so far, but, in the form of concerns about the standards of conduct of public office holders, they present three very concrete challenges for European democracies. First, and most obviously, public confidence that standards are being maintained may be assumed to be intimately bound up with the strength of political institutions and therefore with democratic…
الجمعة, 08 كانون2/يناير 2021 11:35

Introduction: Corruption and Democracy in Western Europe 2

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An understanding of public perceptions of, and attitudes towards, behaviour likely to be deemed corrupt is, then, important. And yet, the achievement of that understanding would appear to be fraught with difficulties, both philosophical and practical. The philosophical difficulties arise from the fact that no one expresses perceptions and attitudes without some awareness of the perceptions and attitudes of others, and therefore no one does so free of social pressures. Variation in these pressures thus gives rise to variation in the perceptions and attitudes individuals are willing to admit to – but how do these fickle expressions relate to individuals’…
الجمعة, 01 كانون2/يناير 2021 10:07

Introduction: Corruption and Democracy in Western Europe 1

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ABSTRACT Public perceptions and attitudes are central to an understanding of the significance of corruption in Europe and in democracies generally – this for a number of reasons including the meaning of the term ‘corruption’ itself. But the investigation of perceptions and attitudes is fraught with difficulties, philosophical as well as practical. If these difficulties appear to invite the conclusion that investigation in this area is a forlorn enterprise, three challenges make it worth while to persist: The significance for democratic stability of public appraisals of official conduct deemed illegitimate; growing concerns about this conduct; and a relative lack of information in the area. Each based…
الثلاثاء, 07 تموز/يوليو 2020 08:14

How Billionaires Go Broke: 8 People Who Lost Almost Everything

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Would you please visit this page to read all a studie of Toni Allen : https://commodity.com/blog/biggest-lost-fortunes/?off  
الثلاثاء, 24 آذار/مارس 2020 13:40

Why the Arabic Language is important?

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The Arabic language has got great importance in Arab culture, heritage and literature, aa it considered a part of the Arab civilization. The following points summarize the importance of the Arabic language: Arabic is one of the Semitic human languages, which has been preserving its linguistic and grammatical history since ancient times. Arabic is the language of many peoples and tribes, such as Thamud, Aad, and others, and this has contributed to its spread in Arabia and the Levant. The Arabic language contributes to the rising of many civilizations, especially Europeans, which encouraged the Europeans to learn and understand it’s…
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